Most European nations participated in the Atlantic trade and contributed to colonial slavery :
– Either by organizing slave-trade expeditions, or,
– By financing expeditions (one example is Switzerland), or,
– By producing goods to be traded on the African coasts to purchase captives or operate plantations.
Some countries were especially active in the slave trade :
Liverpool, the largest European slave port, initiated 4,894 expeditions, more than the French ports as all French ports combined.